The Evolution of a Vaccine Textbook and the Arrogant Ignorance of the Anti-Vaccine Movement (updated)
One of the fairly common things out of the “pro-safe” vaccine crowd insists is that there’s inadequate research on vaccines. What better way to look at how information has grown over time than to look at the evolution of a vaccine textbook and how it has grown over five editions.
In 1988, Vaccines was one third the size of the present edition, published 20 years later.
Hardcover: 656 pages
Publisher: Saunders (W.B.) Co Ltd; 2nd edition edition (August 1988)
The second edition of Vaccines was published in 1994. It added over three hundred pages in the six years between editions.
Hardcover: 996 pages
Publisher: W.B. Saunders Company; 2 Sub edition (January 1994)
Product Dimensions: 10.3 x 7.3 x 1.9 inches
Shipping Weight: 4.6 pounds”
The third edition was published in 1999. In five years, it added over two hundred pages, and two and a half pounds.
Hardcover: 1230 pages
Publisher: W.B. Saunders Company; 3rd edition (February 15, 1999)
Product Dimensions: 11 x 8.7 x 2.4 inches
Shipping Weight: 7.1 pounds
The fourth edition of Vaccines was published in 2004 and jumped to 1408 pages.
Hardcover: 1408 pages
Publisher: Saunders; 4 edition (September 19, 2003)
Product Dimensions: 11.2 x 8.8 x 2.4 inches
Shipping Weight: 8 pounds
The fifth edition of Vaccines was published in 2008.
Hardcover: 1748 pages
Publisher: Saunders; 5 edition (February 7, 2008)
Product Dimensions: 11.2 x 9.1 x 2.4 inches
Shipping Weight: 8.4 pounds
At Amazon, the fifth edition is described as “comprehensive and current coverage of every aspect of vaccination-from development to use in reducing disease.”
“Provides a complete understanding of each disease, including clinical characteristics, microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment, as well an epidemiology and public health issues.
Offers comprehensive coverage of both existing vaccines and vaccines currently in the research and development stage.
Examines vaccine stability, immunogenicity, efficacy, duration of immunity, adverse events, indications, contraindications, precautions, administration with other vaccines, and disease control strategies.
Analyses the cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness of vaccines.
Discusses the proper use of immune globulins and antitoxins.
Illustrates concepts and objective data with approximately 600 tables and figures.”
In twenty years, the textbook by Stanley Plotkin and Walter Orenstein (and later Paul Offit) has doubled in weight, gone from 656 pages to 1748 pages.
Another complaint is that safety in vaccines isn’t being studied. A search of clinicaltrials.gov for vaccines pulls up 3,644 trials. 2,741 clinical trials are pulled up when you add safety to the search term. It’s beyond ignorance when you hear a “pro safe” vaccine advocate argue there’s insufficient research being done. It’s intellectual laziness. When you search for vaccines and efficacy, you get 2,089 results.
Pubmed has 8,316 results for “vaccines safety” and 14,163 for “vaccines efficacy.” It has 602 articles for “vaccines herd immunity.” Therre’s a lot of research out there on vaccines despite what “pro safe” advocates would have you believe. And lest you think that they’re not looking at adverse effects, the results for “vaccines adverse effects” are 23,179 articles on PubMed.
Just because you haven’t heard about it doesn’t mean the knowledge isn’t out there. All it takes is a willingness to look and the effort. No, I’m not a vaccine expert, and I never will be, but I can find the resources that are available, I can take the time to look at the amount of research being done. And I can be humbled by the volume of information out there and the realization that no matter how hard I try, I will never come close to reading it all.
Individuals like Paul Offit, Stanley Plotkin and Walter Orenstein are the experts in their field. They have the expertise and the authority to speak about vaccines, their safety, their efficacy, and their adverse effects. Dr. Offit has never shied away from admitting the failures, the problems, or the need for improvement.
Offit indisputably is an expert in vaccines. When he speaks about the safety and efficacy of vaccines, there’s no reason to doubt his knowledge about the subject or his willingness to speak candidly about the potential adverse effects. He doesn’t claim to be an autism expert, but he doesn’t have to. He is an expert in vaccines.
“Pro safe” advocates, especially taken in light of the available research on vaccines, look at best ill-informed and arrogantly ignorant when they criticize Offit and his qualifications to speak on vaccines.
Please see comments for an expansion of the post’s ideas and rebuttals to the argument about conflicts of interest and the old, always tired argument that Offit’s made millions.
Thanks to ScienceMom for finding the disclosure in the NY Times letter that MJ in the comments insisted wasn’t there:
Do you see it, MJ?
Thanks to Liz Ditz for the following:
“To be perfectly clear, here is a partial list of Paul Offit’s grants and publications, starting three decades ago, in 1981.
Principal Investigator of Grants:
The study of rotaviruses with monoclonal antibodies, Individual National Research Service Award, F32 AI 06733, The National Institutes of Health, 1982-1984, $36,000.
Immune protection against rotavirus infection, New Investigator Research Award, 1 R23 AI 21065, The National Institutes of Health, 1984-1987, $107,000
Protection against viral enteritis by intestinal CTLs, Biomedical Research Service Award, RR 05506-26, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 1987-1989, $50,000.
Protection against viral enteritis by intestinal CTLs, The Thomas B. and Jeanette E. Laws McCabe Fund, #60888, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 1987-1989, $14,000.
Protection against viral enteritis by intestinal CTLs, The University of Pennsylvania Research Foundation Award, The University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 1988-1989, $18,000.
Modification of rotavirus virulence by genetic reassortment, The Lederle Young Investigator Award in Vaccine Development, The Infectious Disease Society of America, 1988-1990, $60,000.
Protection against enteric infection by intestinal CTLs, Research Career Development Award, 1 K04 AIDK00889-01 VR, The National Institutes of Health, 1989-94, $300,000.
Protection against enteric infection by intestinal CTLs, R01 AI26251-01, The National Institutes of Health, 1990-95, $552,290.
Rotavirus-specific cellular immune response after natural infection or immunization, Thrasher Research Fund, 1993-95, $84,168.
Enhancement of rotavirus vaccine immunogenicity, World Health Organization, 1995-97, $46,000.
Enhancement of viral immunogenicity by microencapsulation, R01 AI26251-06-10, The National Institutes of Health, 1995-2000, $980,350.
Enhancement of bovine herpes virus glycoprotein immunogenicity by microencapsulation, Pfizer Laboratories, 1996-1997, $62,500.
Enhancement of influenza virus and avian poxvirus-HIV recombinant immunogenicity by microencapsulation, Pasteur-Merieux Serum et Vaccin, 1996-1997, $230,000.
Enhancement of an E. coli fimbrial protein (F11) immunogenicity by microencapsulation, Intervet Laboratories, 1996-1997, $12,000.
Enhancement of canine parvovirus and feline leukemia virus immunogenicity by aqueous-based microencapsulation, Heska Laboratories, 1996-1997, $62,000.
Enhancing mucosal immune responses by microencapsulation, R01 AI26251-11-15, The National Institutes of Health, 2000-2005, $1,250,000.
To be perfectly clear, here is a partial list of Paul Offit’s grants and publications, starting three decades ago, in 1981.
1. Offit, P.A., G.B. Fleischer, N. Koven, and S.A. Plotkin. 1981. Severe pneumonia in Epstein-Barr virus infection. J. Adol. Health Care 2: 121-125.
2. Offit, P.A., J. Campos, and S.A. Plotkin. 1982. Ampicillin-resistant, beta-lactamase negative, Haemophilus influenza type B. Pediatrics 69: 230-232.
3. Offit, P.A., S. Starr, P. Zolnick, and S.A. Plotkin. 1982. Acyclovir treatment in neonatal herpes simplex virus infection. Ped. Infect. Dis. 1: 253-255.
4. Offit, P.A., H.F. Clark, W.G. Stroop, E.M. Twist, and S.A. Plotkin. 1983. The cultivation of human rotavirus, strain ‘WA’, to high titer in cell culture and characterization of the viral structural polypeptides. J. Virol. Methods 7: 29-40.
5. Offit, P.A., H.F. Clark, and S.A. Plotkin. 1983. Experimental analysis of the immune response to rotaviruses of bovine or primate origin assessed by radioimmunoassay, radioimmunoprecipitation, and plaque-reduction neutralization. Infect. Immun. 42: 293-300.
6. Offit, P.A., Clark, H.F., M. Kornstein, and S.A. Plotkin. 1984. A murine model for oral infection with a primate rotavirus (simian strain SA-11). J. Virol. 51: 233-236.
7. Offit, P.A., H.F. Clark, A.H. Taylor, R.G. Hess, P.A. Bachman, and S.A. Plotkin. 1984. Rotavirus-specific antibodies in fetal bovine serum and commercial preparations of serum albumin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 20: 266-270.
8. Offit, P.A., and H.F. Clark. 1985. Protection against rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis in a murine model by passively-acquired gastrointestinal but not circulating antibodies. J. Virol. 54: 58-64.
9. Offit, P.A., and H.F. Clark. 1985. Maternal antibody-mediated protection against gastroenteritis due to rotavirus in neonatal mice is dependent on both serotype and titer of antibody. J. Infect. Dis. 152: 1152-1158.
10. Offit, P.A., G. Blavat, H.B. Greenberg, and H.F. Clark. 1986. Molecular basis of rotavirus virulence: role of gene segment 4. J. Virol. 57: 46-49.
11. Offit, P.A., and G. Blavat. 1986. Identification of the two rotavirus genes determining neutralization specificities. J. Virol. 57: 376-378.
12. Offit, P.A., R. Shaw, and H.B. Greenberg. 1986. Protection against rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis in newborn mice by monoclonal antibodies to surface proteins vp3 and vp7. J. Virol. 58: 700-703.
13. Clark, H.F., P.A. Offit, K.T. Dolan, A. Tezza, K. Gogalin, E.M. Twist, and S.A. Plotkin. 1986. Response of adult human volunteers to oral administration of bovine and bovine/human reassortant rotaviruses. Vaccine 4: 25-31.
14. Clark, H.F., P.A. Offit, K. Dolan, T. Furukawa, L. Bell, and S.A. Plotkin. 1985. Rotavirus (RV) of bovine and human origin: immune response of adults and children following oral administration. Pediatr. Res. 19: 290 A.
15. Clark, H.F., T. Furukawa, L.M. Bell, P.A. Offit, P.A. Parrella, and S.A. Plotkin. 1986. Immune response of infants and children to low-passage bovine rotavirus (strain WC-3). Am J. Dis. Child. 140:350-356.
16. Shaw, R.D., T.V. Phuoc, P.A. Offit, B.S. Coulson, and H.B. Greenberg. 1986. Antigenic mapping of the surface proteins of rhesus rotavirus. Virology 155: 434-451.
17. Offit, P.A., G. Blavat, H.F. Clark, and H.B. Greenberg. 1986. Reassortant rotaviruses containing structural proteins vp3 and vp7 from different parents induce antibodies protective against each parental serotype. J. Virol. 60: 491-496.
18. Bell, L.M., H.F. Clark, P.A. Offit, P.H. Slight, A.M. Arbeter, and S.A. Plotkin. 1987. Rotavirus serotype-specific neutralizing activity in human milk. Am. J. Dis. Child. 142: 275-278.
19. Bell, L.M., H.F. Clark, E.A. O’Brien, M.J. Kornstein, S.A. Plotkin, and P.A. Offit. 1987. Gastroenteritis caused by human rotaviruses (serotype 3) in a suckling mouse model. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 184: 127-132.
20. Clark, H.F., Y. Hoshino, L.M. Bell, J. Groff, P. Bachman, and P.A. Offit. 1987. A rotavirus isolate WI61 representing a presumptive new human serotype. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 1757-1762.
21. Liu, M., P.A. Offit, and M.K. Estes. 1988. Identification of the simian rotavirus SA11 genome segment 3 product. Virology 163: 26-32.
22. Offit, P.A., and K.I. Dudzik. 1988. Rotavirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes cross-react with target cells infected with different rotavirus serotypes. J. Virol. 62:127-131.
23. Offit, P.A., and K.I. Dudzik. 1989. Noninfectious rotavirus (strain RRV) induces and immune response which protects against rotavirus challenge. J.Clin. Microbiol. 27: 885-888.
24. Matsui, S., P.A. Offit, P.T. Vo, E.R. Mackow, D.A. Benfield, R.D. Shaw, L. Padilla-Noriega, and H.B. Greenberg. 1989. Passive protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea by monoclonal antibodies to the heterotypic neutralization domain of vp7 and the vp8 fragment of vp4. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 780-782.
25. Offit, P.A., and K.I. Dudzik. 1989. Rotavirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes appear at the intestinal mucosal surface after rotavirus infection. J. Virol. 63: 3507-3512.
26. Offit, P.A., H.B. Greenberg, and K.I. Dudzik. 1989. Rotavirus-specific protein synthesis is not necessary for recognition of infected cells by virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J. Virol. 63: 3279-3283.
27. Offit, P.A. and Y.M. Svoboda. 1989. Rotavirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response of mice after oral inoculation with candidate rotavirus vaccine strains RRV or WC3. J. Infect. Dis. 160:783-788.
28. Brussow H., P.A. Offit, G. Gerna, A. Bruttin, and J. Sidoti. 1990. Polypeptide specificity of anti-viral serum antibodies in children naturally infected with human rotavirus. J. Virol. 64:4130-4136.
29. Matsuda Y., O. Nakagomi, and P.A. Offit. 1990. Presence of three P types (vp4 serotypes) and two G types (vp7 serotypes) among bovine rotavirus strains. Arch. Virol. 115:199-207.
30. Offit, P.A. and K.I. Dudzik. 1990. Rotavirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes passively protect against gastroenteritis in suckling mice. J. Virol. 64:6325-6328.
31. Offit, P.A., S.L. Cunningham, and K.I. Dudzik. 1991. Memory and distribution of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and CTLp after rotavirus infection. J. Virol. 65:1318-1324.
32. Offit, P.A., D.B. Boyle, G.W. Both, N.L. Hill, Y.M. Svoboda, S.L. Cunningham, R.J. Jenkins, and M.A. McCrae. 1991. Surface glycoprotein vp7 is recognized by crossreactive rotavirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Virology 184:563-568.
33. Brussow, H., P.A. Offit, J. Sidoti. 1991. Neutralizing antibodies to heterologous animal rotavirus serotypes 5, 6, 7, and 10 in sera from Ecuadorian children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 29:869-873.
34. Nadel, S., P.A. Offit, R. Hodinka, R. Gesser, and L.M. Bell. 1992. Upper airway obstruction in perinatally-acquired herpes simplex virus infection. J. Pediatr. 120:127-129.
35. Offit, P.A., E.J. Hoffenberg, E.S. Pia, P.A. Panackal, and N.L. Hill. 1992. Rotavirus-specific helper T cell response in newborns, infants, children, and adults. J. Infect. Dis. 165:1107-1111.
36. Ammari, L.K., P.A. Offit, A.B. Campbell. 1992. Unusual presentation of group B streptococcus osteomyelitis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 11:1066-1067.
37. Offit, P.A., E.J. Hoffenberg, N. Santos, and V. Gouvea. 1993. Rotavirus-specific humoral and cellular immune response after primary, symptomatic infection. J. Infect. Dis. 167:1436-1440.
38. Christy, C., P.A. Offit, H F. Clark, and J. Treanor. 1993. Evaluation of a bovine-human rotavirus reassortant vaccine in infants. J. Infect. Dis. 168:1598-1599.
39. Offit, P.A., B.E.H. Coupar, Y. M. Svoboda, R.J. Jenkins, M.A. McRae, A. Abraham, N.L. Hill, D.B. Boyle, and G.W. Both. 1994. Induction of rotavirus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by vaccinia virus recombinants expressing individual rotavirus genes. Virology 198:10-16.
40. Santos, N., Riepenhoff-Talty, M., Clark, H.F., Offit, P, and Gouvea, V. 1994. Vp4 genotyping of human rotavirus in the USA. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:205-208.
41. Offit, P.A., Khoury, C.A., Moser, C.H., Clark, HF., and Speaker T.J. 1994. Enhancement of rotavirus immunogenicity by microencapsulation. Virology 203:134-143.
42. Khoury, C.A., Brown, K., Kim, J., and Offit, P.A.. 1994. Rotavirus-specific intestinal immune response in mice assessed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and intestinal fragment culture. Clin. Diag. Lab. Immunol. 1:722-728.
43. Treanor, J.J., Clark, HF., Pichichero, M., Christy, C., Gouvea, V., Shrager, D., Pallazo, S., and Offit, P.A. 1995. Evaluation of the protective efficacy of a serotype 1 bovine-human rotavirus reassortant vaccine in infants. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 14:301-307.
44. Brown, K.A., Moser, C.A., Khoury, C.A., Kim, J.E., and P.A. Offit. 1995. Enhancement by microencapsulation of rotavirus-specific intestinal immune responses in mice assessed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and intestinal fragment culture. J. Infect. Dis. 171:1334-1338.
45. Khoury, C.A., Moser, C.A., Speaker, T.J., and Offit, P.A. 1995. Oral inoculation of mice with low doses of microencapsulated, noninfectious rotavirus induces virus-specific antibodies in gut-associated lymphoid tissue. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 870-874.
46. Coffin, S.E., Klinek, M., and Offit, P.A. 1995. Induction of virus-specific antibody production by lamina propria lymphocytes following intramuscular inoculation with rotavirus. J. Infect. Dis. 172: 874-878.
47. Moser, C.A., Speaker, T.J., Berlin, J.A., and Offit, P.A. 1996. Aqueous-based microencapsulation enhances rotavirus-specific humoral immune responses after parenteral inoculation of mice. Vaccine 14:1235-1238.
48. Lomotan, E.A., Brown, K.A., Speaker, T.J., and Offit, P.A. 1997. Aqueous-based microcapsules are detected primarily in gut-associated dendritic cells after oral inoculation of mice. Vaccine 15:1959-1962.
49. Moser, C.A., Speaker, T.J., and Offit, P.A. 1997. Effect of microencapsulation on immunogenicity of a bovine herpes virus glycoprotein and inactivated influenza virus in mice. Vaccine 15: 1767-1772.
50. Coffin, S.E., Moser, C.A., Cohen, S., Clark, HF., and Offit, P.A. 1997. Immunologic correlates of protection against challenge after intramuscular immunization of mice with rotavirus. J. Virol. 71:7851-7856.
51. Moser, C.A., Coffin, S.E., Cookinham, S., and Offit, P.A. 1998. Relative importance of rotavirus-specific effector and memory B cell responses in protection against challenge. J. Virol. 72:1108-1114.
52. Brown, K.A. and Offit, P.A. 1998. Rotavirus-specific proteins are detected in murine macrophages in both intestinal and extraintestinal lymphoid tissue. Microbial Pathogen. 24:327-331.
53. Coffin, S.E., and Offit, P.A. 1998. Induction of rotavirus-specific memory B cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue after intramuscular immunization. J. Virol. 72:3479-3483.
54. Moser, C.A., Speaker, T.J., and Offit, P.A. 1998. Effect of water-based microencapsulation on protection against EDIM rotavirus challenge in mice. J. Virol. 72:3859-3862.
55. Coffin, S.E., Clark, S.A., Bos, N.A., Brubaker, J.O., and Offit, P.A. 1999. Migration of antigen-presenting B cells from peripheral to mucosal lymphoid tissues may induce intestinal antigen-specific IgA following parenteral immunization. J. Immunol. 163:3064-3070.
56. Coffin, S.E., Moser, C.A., Cohen, S., Speaker, T.J., and Offit, P.A. 1999. Viral microencapsulation delays protection after intramuscular inoculation of mice with rotavirus. Drug Delivery 6:253-257.
57. Brubaker, J., R. Patel, T.J. Speaker, and P.A. Offit. 2000. A quantitative luminescence assay for measuring cell uptake of aqueous-based microcapsules in vitro. J. Immunol. Methods 237:85-93.
58. Macartney, K.M., D. Baumgart, S.R. Carding, J.O. Brubaker, and P.A.Offit. 2000. Primary murine small intestinal epithelial cells, maintained in long-term culture, are susceptible to rotavirus infection. J. Virol. 74:5597-5603.
59. Brown, K.A., J.A. Kriss, C.A. Moser, W.J. Wenner, and P.A. Offit. 2000. Circulating rotavirus-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASC) predict the presence of rotavirus-specific ASC in the human small intestinal lamina propria. J. Infect. Dis. 182:1039-1043.
60. Offit, P.A. 2000. Preventing harm from thimerosal in vaccines (correspondance). JAMA 283:2104.
61. Moser, C.A., D.V. Dolfi, M.L. DiVietro, P.A. Offit, and H F. Clark. 2001. Hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and infectious virus in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of mice after oral inoculation with simian-human or bovine-human reassortant rotaviruses. J. Infect. Dis. 183:1108-1111.
62. Kushnir, N., N.A. Bos, A.W. Zuercher, S.E. Coffin, C.A. Moser, P.A. Offit, and J.J. Cebra. 2001. B2 but not B1 B cells can contribute to CD4+ T cell-mediated clearance of rotavirus in SCID mice. J. Virol. 75:5482-5490.
63. Clark, HF, D. Lawley, D. Shrager, D. Jean-Guillaume, P.A. Offit, J. Eiden, and A.R. Shaw. 2001. Immune response of infants to bovine human rotavirus serotype G1 reassortant WI79-9: the dose response pattern to virus surface protein vp7 differs from that to vp4. Vaccine [in press].
64. Moser, C.A. and P.A. Offit. 2001. Distribution of rotavirus-specific memory B cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue after primary immunization. J. Gen. Virol. 82:2271-2274.
65. Brubaker, J.O., K.K. Macartney, T.J. Speaker, and P.A. Offit. 2002. Specific attachment of covalently modified aqeous-based microcapsules to macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells. J. Microencapsulation 19:213-223.
66. Offit, P.A., Quarles, J., Gerber, M.A., Hackett, C.J., Marcuse, E.K., Kollman, T.R., Gellin, B.G., and Landry, S. 2002. Addressing parents’ concerns: Do multiple vaccines overwhelm or weaken the infant’s immune system? Pediatrics 109:124-129.
67. Offit, P.A., Gerber, M.A., Hackett, C., Marcuse, E., and Gellin, B. 2002. Too many vaccines? (correspondence). Pediatrics 110:649.
68. Offit, P.A. and Hackett, C.J. 2003. Addressing parents’ concerns: Do vaccines cause allergic or autoimmune diseases? Pediatrics 111:653-659.
69. Chow, A.A., Moser C.A., Speaker, T.J., and Offit, P.A. 2003. Determination of efficiency of attachment of biotinylated antibodies to avidin-linked, aqueous-based microcapsules by flow cytometry. J. Immunol. Methods 2003;277:135-139.
70. Offit, P.A., Jew, R.K. 2003. Addressing parents’ concerns: Do vaccines contain harmful preservatives, adjuvants, additives, or residuals? Pediatrics 112:1394-1401.
71. Offit, P.A. and Coffin, S.E. 2003. Communicating science to the public: MMR vaccine and autism. Vaccine 22:1-6.
72. Offit, P.A. and Peter G. 2003. The meningococcal vaccine: public policy and individual choices. N. Engl. J. Med. 349:2353-2356; Offit, P.A., Peter, G. Choices about meningococcal vaccine. [correspondence] N. Engl. J. Med. 2004;350:1156.
73. Clark HF, Burke CJ, Volkin DV, Offit, P, Ward RL, Breese JS, Dennehy P, Gooch WM, Malacaman E, Matson D, Walter E, Watson B, Krah DL, Dallas MJ, Schödel F, Kaplan KM, Heaton P. 2003. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in healthy infants of G1 and G2 human reassortant rotavirus vaccine in a new stabilizer/buffer liquid formulation. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22:914-920.
74. Clark HF, Lawley D, Shrager D, Jean-Guillaume D, Offit P, Eiden JJ, Bennett PS, Kaplan, KM, Shaw A. 2004. Infant immune response to human rotavirus serotype G1 vaccine candidate reassortant WI79-9: Different dose response patterns to virus surface proteins vp7 and vp4. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 23:206-211.
75. Clark HF, Bernstein DI, Dennehy P, Offit P, Pichichero M, Treanor J, Ward RL, Krah DL, Shaw A, Dallas MJ, Eiden JJ, Ivanoff N, Kaplan KM, Heaton P. 2004. Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of a live, quadrivalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine in healthy infants. J. Pediatr. 144:184-190.
76. Offit, P.A. 2005. Why are pharmaceutical companies gradually abandoning vaccines? Health Affairs Journal, 24:622-630.
77. Offit, P.A. 2005. The Cutter Incident, 50 years later. N. Engl. J. Med. 352:1411-1412.
78. Vesikari T, Matson DO, Dennehy P, Van Damme P, Santosham M, Rodriguez Z, Dallas MJ, Heyse JF, Gouveia MG, Black SB, Shinefield HR, Christie C, Ylitalo S, Itzler RF, Coia ML, Onorato MT, Adeyi BA, Marshall GS, Gothefors L, Campens D, Karvonen A, Watt JP, O’Brien KL, DiNubile MJ, Clark HF, Boslego JW, Offit PA, Heaton PM. 2006. Safety and efficacy of pentavalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine in preventing rotavirus gastroenteritis and associated healthcare contacts. N. Engl. J. Med 354:13-23.
79. Vesikari T, Clark HF, Offit PA, Dallas MJ, DiStefano DJ, Goveia MG, Ward RL, Schödel F, Karvonen A, DiNubile MJ, Heaton PM. 2006. Effects of potency and composition of the multivalent human-bovine (WC3) reassortant rotavirus vaccine on efficacy, safety and immunogenicity in healthy infants. Vaccine 24:4821-4829.
Editorials, Reviews, Chapters:
1. Offit, P.A., and S.A. Plotkin. 1981. The rubella vaccine. Clin. Microbiol Newsletter 3: 130-131.
2. Offit, P.A., and D. Rubin. 1982. Viral diseases: infections of the gastrointestinal tract. Comprehensive Therapy8: 21-26.
3. Greenberg, H.B., P.A. Offit, C. Tran, A. Kapikian, W. Robinson, R. Shaw, R. Gaeta, and R. Bellamy. 1985. Vaccine strategies for the prevention of rotavirus diarrhea. pp. 447-455. In: S. Tzipori (ed.), Infectious diarrhea in the young: strategies for control in humans and animals Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
4. Greenberg, H.B., and P.A. Offit. 1986. Gene coding assignments for rotavirus surface proteins. pp. 221-225. In: Development of Vaccines and Drugs against Diarrheal Diseases, Studentlitteratur, Lund, Sweden.
5. Offit, P.A., G. Blavat, H.F. Clark, R. Shaw, and H.B. Greenberg. 1986. Role of gene segments 4 and 9 in determining rotavirus virulence and protection against rotavirus challenge. pp. 267-273, In: R.M. Chanock and R.M. Lerner (eds.): Vaccines ’86: New Approaches to Immunization.
6. Greenberg, H.B., P.A. Offit, and R.D. Shaw. 1988. Neutralization of rotaviruses in vitro and in vivo: molecular determinants of protection and role of local immunity. pp. 319-330, In: W. Strober, M.E. Lamm, J.R. McGhee, and S.P. James (eds.): Mucosal Immunity and Infections at Mucosal Surfaces.
7. Offit, P.A. 1991. Viral gastroenteritis. In: A.M. Rudolph and J.I.E. Hoffman (eds.): Rudolph’s Pediatrics, 19th Edition, Appleton and Lange, 1991: 670-671.
8. Offit, P.A. 1993. Rotavirus. In: F.D. Burg, J.R. Ingelfinger, and E.R. Wald (eds.): Gellis and Kagan’s Current Pediatric Therapy, pages 652-653. 14th Edition, W.B. Saunders.
9. Greenberg H.B., H.F. Clark, and P.A. Offit. 1994. Rotavirus pathology and pathophysiology. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 1993;255-283, Springer-Verlag Publishers, Berlin, West Germany.
10. Offit, P.A. 1994. Immunologic determinants of protection against rotavirus challenge. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, 1993;185:229-254, Springer-Verlag Publishers, Berlin, West Germany.
11. Clark, H F., and P.A. Offit. 1994. Rotavirus vaccines. pp. 809-822. In: S.A. Plotkin and E.A. Mortimer, Jr. (eds): Vaccines, 2nd Edition, W.B. Saunders.
12. Offit, P.A. 1994. Virus-specific cellular immune response to intestinal infection. pp. 89-100. In: D.A.J. Tyrell and A.Z. Kapikian (eds.): Virus infections of the gastrointestinal tract, 2nd Edition, Marcel Dekker, Inc.
13. Offit, P.A. 1994. Rotaviruses: immunological determinants of protection against infection and disease. Advances in Virus Research 44: 161-202.
14. Offit, P.A., and Clark, HF. 1994. Rotaviruses. In: Mandell, G.L., Bennett, J.E., and Dolin, R. (eds.). Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, pp. 1448-1455. 4th Edition, Churchill Livingstone.
15. Offit, P.A. and Clark, H.F. 1995. Vaccines for enteric viral pathogens. pp. 1471-8, In: Blaser, M.J., Smith, P.D., Ravdin, J.I., Greenberg, H.B., and Guerrant, R.L. (eds.). Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract. Raven Press, New York, N.Y.
16. Offit, P.A. Viral gastroenteritis. 1996. In: A.M. Rudolph, J.I.E. Hoffman, and C.D. Rudolph (eds.): Rudolph’s Pediatrics, 20th Edition, Appleton and Lange, pp. 642-643.
17. Conner, M.E., Estes, M.K., Offit, P.A., Clark, HF., Franco, M., Feng, N., and Greenberg, H.B. 1996. Development of a mucosal rotavirus vaccine. In: H. Kiyono, P.L. Ogra, and J.R. McGhee (eds.): Mucosal Vaccines: New Trends in Immunization, Academic Press, pp. 325-344.
18. Offit, P.A. 1996. Host factors associated with protection against rotavirus disease: the skies are clearing. J. Infect. Dis. 174 (Suppl 1): S59-64.
19. Clark, HF., Offit, P.A., Ellis, R.W., Eiden, J.J., Krah, D., Shaw, A.R., Pichichero, M., Treanor, J.J., Borian, F.E., Bell, L.M., and Plotkin, S.A. 1996. The development of multivalent bovine rotavirus (strain WC3) reassortant vaccine for infants. J. Infect. Dis. 174 (Suppl 1): S73-80.
20. Clark, HF., Offit, P.A., Ellis, R.W., Krah, D., Shaw, A.R., Eiden, J.J., Pichichero, M., and Treanor, J.J. 1996. WC3 reassortant vaccines in children: brief review. Arch. Virol. [Suppl] 12: 187-198.
21. Offit, P.A., Kapikian, A.Z., and Clark, HF. 1997. Vaccines against rotavirus. In: M.M. Levine, G.C. Woodrow, J.B. Kaper, and G.S. Cobon (eds.): New Generation Vaccines, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY, pages 659-671.
22. Coffin, S.E., and P.A. Offit. 1997. New vaccines against mucosal pathogens: rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus. Adv. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 13: 333-348.
23. Offit, P.A. 1998. Rotavirus, In: F.D. Burg, J.R. Ingelfinger, and E.R.Wald, R.A. Polin (eds.): Gellis and Kagan’s Current Pediatric Therapy, pages 132-133, 14th Edition, W.B. Saunders.
24. Offit, P.A., and H.F. Clark. 1998. The rotavirus vaccine. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 11:9-13.
25. Offit, P.A. The rotavirus vaccine. 1998. Journal of Clinical Virology 11:155-159, 1998.
26. Clark, H F., R.I. Glass, and P.A. Offit. 1999. Rotavirus vaccines. In: S.A.Plotkin and W. Orenstein (eds): Vaccines, pages 987-1005, 3rd Edition, W.B. Saunders.
27. Offit, P.A., and H F. Clark. 1999. Rotavirus vaccines, pp. 171-195. In: Ellis, R. (ed.): Combination Vaccines 1st Edition, Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey.
28. Macartney, K.K., and P.A. Offit. 2000. Immunologic methods and correlates of protection, In: Gray, J., and Desselberger, U. (eds.): Methods in Molecular Medicine: Rotaviruses, Humana Press Inc., Totawa, New Jersey [in press].
29. Offit, P.A. 2000. Withdrawal of rotavirus vaccine in the USA. Vaccines: Children and Practice 3:2-3.
30. Offit, P.A. 2001. Correlates of protection against rotavirus infection and disease. In Gastroenteritis viruses. Novartis Foundation Symposium 238, pp. 106-124, Wiley, Chichester.
31. Macartney, K.K., and P.A. Offit. How vaccine safety is monitored before and after licensure. Pediatric Annals 2001;30:392-399.
32. Offit, P.A. 2002. The future of rotavirus vaccines. Sem Pediatr Infect Dis 2002;13: 190-195.
33. Offit, PA, HF Clark, and RL Ward. Current state of development of human rotavirus vaccines. In: U. Desselberger and J. Gray (eds.): Viral Gastroenteritis, 2003; pp. 345-356, Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
34. Clark, H F., P.A. Offit, R.I. Glass, and RM Ward. Rotavirus vaccines. In: S.A.Plotkin and W. Orenstein (eds): Vaccines, 2003; pp. 1327-1345, 4th Edition, W.B. Saunders.
35. Offit P.A., and C.J. Hackett. Multiple vaccines and the immune system. In: S.A.Plotkin and W. Orenstein (eds): Vaccines, 2003, pp. 1583-1589, 4th Edition, W.B. Saunders.
36. Offit, P.A. 2003. Commentary: Let’s get parents truly “fully informed” about vaccines. Contemp. Pediatr. 12-16.
37. Offit, P.A. 2003. The power of ‘box a’. Expert Rev Vaccines 2003;2:1-3.
38. Offit, P.A. “When Judges Play Doctor,” The Wall Street Journal, February 9, 2004.
39. Ward RL, HF Clark, PA Offit, and RI Glass. 2004. Live vaccine strategies to prevent rotavirus disease. In: M.M. Levine, J.B. Kaper, R. Rappuoli, M. Liu, and M.F. Good (eds.): New Generation Vaccines, pp. 607-620. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, NY.
40. Offit, P.A. Back to the future. Expert Rev Vaccines 2004;3:89-90.
41. Offit, P.A., Golden, J. Thimerosal and autism. Mol Psychiatry 2004;9:644.
42. Clark HF, and P.A. Offit. Vaccine for rotavirus gastroenteritis universally needed for infants. Pediatr Ann 2004;33:536-543.
43. Offit, P.A., and G. Peter. Meningococcal conjugate vaccine in the UK: An update. Lancet 2004;364:309-310.
44. Offit, P.A. “The Needless Worry Over Influenza Vaccine,” The Wall Street Journal, September 14, 2004.
45. McMillan, J.A., Abramson, J.S., Katz, S.L., and Offit, P.A. Reducing the risk of pediatric influenza: Prevention strategies help both the young and old.Contemporary Pediatrics
46. Heaton, P.M., Goveia, M., Miller, J.M., Offit, P.A., Clark, H.F. Development of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against prevalent serotypes of rotavirus gastroenteritis. J. Infect. Dis. 2005;192:S17-21.
47. Offit, P.A. “Lawsuits Won’t Stop Pandemics,” The Wall Street Journal, December 1, 2005.
48. Offit, P.A., Clark HF. A multivalent bovine-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq). Pediatr Annals 2006; 35: 29-34.
49. H.F. Clark, Offit, P.A., Plotkin, S.A., and Heaton, P.M. The new pentavalent rotavirus vaccine composed of bovine (strain WC3)-human rotavirus reassortants. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006; 25:577-583.
50. Offit, P.A. “Fatal Exemption,” The Wall Street Journal, January 20, 2007.
51. Offit, P.A. “Risks of Being Risk Averse,” The Philadelphia Inquirer, July 12, 2007.
52. Offit, P.A. “Dr. Advertising,” The New York Times, July 12, 2007.
53. Offit, P.A. “Thimerosal and Vaccines—A Cautionary Tale,” New England Journal of Medicine 2007;357:1278-9.
54. Offit, P.A. “Inoculated against Facts,” The New York Times, March 31, 2008.
55. Offit, P.A. Vaccines. 2008. In: J. M. Bergelson, S. S. Shah, and T. E. Zaoutis (eds.): Pediatric Infectious Diseases, pp. 373-384. Mosby Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
1. 1. Offit, P.A., and L.M. Bell. 1998. What Every Parent Should Know about Vaccines. Macmillan Press, New York, N.Y.
2. Offit, P.A., Fass-Offit, B., and Bell, L.M. 1999. Breaking the Antibiotic Habit: A Parent’s Guide to Coughs, Colds, Ear Infections, and Sore Throats. John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y.
3. Offit, P.A., and L.M. Bell. 1999. Vaccines: What Every Parent Should Know. 2nd edition, Hungry Minds, New York, N.Y.
4. Offit, P.A., and L.M. Bell. 2003. Vaccines: What You Should Know. 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y.
5. Marshall, GS, Dennehy PH, Greenberg DP, Offit PA, Tan TQ. 2004. The Vaccine Handbook: A Practical Guide for the Clinician, Lippincott Williams & Wilkens, Philadelphia, PA.
6. Offit, P.A. 2005. The Cutter Incident: How America’s First Polio Vaccine Led to a Growing Vaccine Crisis. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT
7. Offit, P.A. 2007. Vaccinated: One Man’s Quest to Defeat the World’s Deadliest Diseases. Smithsonian Books, New York, N.Y.
8. Offit, P.A. 2008. Autism’s False Prophets: Bad Science, Risky Medicine, and the Search for a Cure. Columbia University Press, New York, N.Y.
****Note, book list does not include the fourth and fifth editions of Vaccines or Deadly Choices.*****